Sunday, August 18, 2019

Development Of The Submarine :: essays research papers

Development of the Submarine Throughout history, navies have made significant impacts in the technological development of human kind. These impacts range from improvements in metal technologies made while perfecting the cannon to the advent of cybernetics, which allowed more precise targeting of weaponry. One of the more sophisticated developments in naval history has been the invention of the submarine. The submarine was born in 1620 as a leather-covered rowboat built by Cornelius Drebbel. After Robert Fulton came up with a more modern prototype in 1800, the military advantages of a nearly invisible warship were quickly divined. However, they remained unrealized for quite a while. Although Fulton probably foresaw that his invention would be used for war, he hardly could have envisioned it launching projectiles with the capability to level entire countries. However, after a series of innovations in nuclear missile and submarine designs, the submarine-launched ballistic missile has become an integral part of our naval weapons arsenal.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To understand the need for the development of nuclear missile submarines, there is a need to examine the political climate of the world in the era after World War II. The realignment of the superpowers after the war resulted in a unique situation. The two major naval powers of the day, Great Britain and the United States, were now allied against the greatest land power in history in the Soviet Union. In the period from 1955 to 1965, the advantage was heavily in favor of the U.S. As the United States had developed the atomic and hydrogen bombs first, they obviously gained a head start which developed into a decisive nuclear advantage. This advantage acted as an effective deterrent to any Soviet movement into Western Europe. However, as the Soviet nuclear arsenal expanded (mostly during the Kennedy administration), it became necessary to effect a balance in the area of conventional warfare or to make more inroads in nuclear weapons development. Before this could be accomplished, however, advancements in submarine technology had to made as well.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The submarines of World War II, although effective in their roles, were rather primitive. A noisy, slow, shallow-diving sub would hardly be a capable missile submarine as it could be easily detected and destroyed. Even so, before the end of the war, there were intelligence reports in America that the German Navy had developed a U-boat capable of towing or carrying V-2 rockets to launch sites near the U.S. east coast. Although these reports turned out to be false, the Germans had been developing a type of submersible barge to tow V-2s. This scare prompted the American development of ballistic missile submarines.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Evolution Of Human Resource Management Functions

During the early phases of the industrial revolution, employees who worked in mills had to undergo highly rough conditions where they were underpaid and had to work for long hours under really hapless conditions of hygiene. These conditions outraged the employees who worked in such mills and they initiated labour public violences. As a consequence of these public violences the authorities intervened to supply basic protection for labours or employees of such mills. This was done through the debut of statutory ordinances and all mill proprietors were required to follow with these statutory ordinances. As a consequence the mill proprietors were forced to put up a section to look into employee rewards, employee public assistance and to turn to other issues refering labour. This led to the development of Personnel Management. The development of Human Resource Management could be said to hold started with the industrial revolution when mills had established forces sections to look in to rewards and public assistance of employees. It could be said that the Personnel Management attack gave manner to the Human Resource Approach. Forces Administration: Personnel Administration concerns twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities and bing jobs of employees. Personnel Administration could be identified as a reactive tool. Scientific Management: Scientific Management suggests there is a particular or a best manner of making things. In Scientific Management human existences were considered as machines, their feelings and attitudes were disregarded. The chief purpose of Scientific Management was merely to maximise the productiveness of the organisation. Human Relations Motion: Human Relations Movement ever anticipated the hereafter unexpected happenings before sing the current issues and believed in synergism. Government Regulations: Government Regulations were put into topographic point so that all employees would at least acquire basic protection from basic signifiers of unjust intervention. There are chiefly four Acts of the Apostless which were put into topographic point for this intent. Equal Pay Act ( 1970 ) – This act prohibits and less favourable intervention between work forces and adult females in footings of wage and conditions of employment. Here, the term wage is interpreted in a wide term and screens countries such as vacations, pension rights and company fillips. Sex Discrimination Act or Gender Discrimination Act ( 1975 ) – This act exists to protect work forces and adult females from favoritism on the evidences of sex. The Sex Discrimination act is chiefly in relation to employment, preparation, instruction, torment, proviso of goods and services and in the disposal of premises. Race Relations Act ( 1976 ) – This act exists to forestall favoritism on the evidences of race. The act besides covers favoritism on the evidences of colour, nationality, ethnicity, proviso of goods and services, instruction and public maps. This act besides established the Commission for Racial Equality. Disability Discrimination Act ( 1995 ) – This act makes it improper to know apart against people in regard of their disablements in relation to employment, the proviso of goods and services, instruction and conveyance. Human Resource Movement: With the Human Resource Movement greater attending was given towards societal duty and societal well being. There was more accent spring to the relationship between employers and employees. Employee thoughts and enterprises were encouraged. Strategic Human Resource Management: In Strategic Human Resource the importance of human resource considerations in long scope strategic planning has been recognized. Under Strategic Human Resource Management non merely one subdivision or section of the organisation would be considered but alternatively the organisation as a whole would be considered.The Personal Management Approach ( Early twentieth Century )The use of Personnel Management Approach was outstanding throughout the early twentieth century even though it remained administrative in nature. The Personnel Management Approach chiefly concerned itself with, Keeping employee records Guaranting conformity with declared policies Execution of maps such as enlisting, preparation and pay disposal Taking public assistance oriented steps such as supplying medical attention and inoculations Trying to increase productiveness through pay additions and preparation, and enforcement of criterions Covering with trade brotherhoods and seeking to work out industrial differences through corporate bargaining and other industrial dealingss attacks Conducting public presentation assessments The Personnel Management Approach tried to convert workers of the concern involvements, and convince direction of workers involvement and besides increase consciousness of concern about societal duty. Personnel Management was largely non involved in the company ‘s scheme and operations aspect.The Traditional Human Resource Approach ( Late twentieth Century )The Traditional Human Resource Approach evolved during the late twentieth century with the development and debut of new theories such as Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory. In the Human Resource Approach the employees of an organisation were considered as valuable resources. Unlike the Personnel Management Approach the Traditional Human Resource Approach was non simply a staff map but it was more and more involved with concern operations. The followers could be identified as the chief differences between the Personnel Management Approach and the Traditional Human Resource Approach. Motivation was given to employees through assorted signifiers such as free vacations, making an active and societal community within the work force besides pecuniary inducements. Training and Development was non merely focused on supplying work related accomplishments but besides focused on altering attitudes and development of basic accomplishments Wage and Salary Administration became more complex with the debut of public presentation related payment strategiesThe Strategic Human Resource Approach ( twenty-first Century )The Strategic Human Resource Approach aligns single ends and aims with corporate ends and aims, and instead than implement regulations or dictate footings, acts as a facilitator and promotes a participative attack. The followers could be identified as the chief differences between the Traditional Human Resource Approach and the Strategic Human Resource Approach. Increased trust on public presentation based short term contracts alternatively of long term employment Direct linkage of compensation to the profitableness of the endeavor and the employee ‘s part towards such profitableness New dimensions for preparation and development map by promoting and easing invention and creativenessHow Personnel Management and Human Resource Management DifferPersonnel Management can be viewed as a tool and it concerns organisational regulations and ordinances and besides ongoing issues. Whereas, Human Resource Management foremost looks in to the long permanent hereafter and analyzes Human Resource needs. Further, Human Resource Management uses an incorporate attack to accomplish those demands with the congruity of corporate aims.Role, Tasks and Activities of a Human Resource PractitionerA Human Resource Practitioner has the chance to assist determine the success of any organisation. There are many functions, undertakings and activities that a Human Resource Practitioner should make such as, Maintain and implement an effectual HR information system and besides pull off the filing system and records for the section. Document and update occupation profiles for all employees. Maintain and reexamine approved manpower program with the relevant stakeholders on a uninterrupted footing as per the identified demands and demands. Develop and implement a Project Employment equity program as title-holder / driver of the map. Ensure timed catching and processing of employment and compensation affairs. Ensure all expirations are processed trepidly in that structured issue interviews are conducted for employees, go forthing and relevant certification completed. Distribute records to and intercede with all relevant sections within the Company. Aid in developing and implementing new and reexamining bing policies and processs. Conduct roll-out Sessionss with staff. Handle all HR / forces related questions and correspondence trepidly and intensify if needed. Ensure orientation and initiation for all new employees on HR related issues are conducted. Implement, support, advise, co-ordinate, proctor and study on Performance Management System. Reporting – compile and distribute studies on HR activities. Maintain leave records and execute leave audits when required. Employee dealingss. Employee health.Role of a Line ManagerLine directors are directors who are responsible for an employee or work group. Many organisation ‘s line directors now carry out activities, which were traditionally within the remit of HR such as supplying coaching and counsel, set abouting public presentation assessments and covering with subject and grudges. In many instances, they besides carry out enlisting and choice in concurrence with HR. First, it is of import for line directors to maintain a positive relationship with their employees, so that the employees will hold higher degree of occupation satisfaction, committedness and trueness, which are associated with higher degrees of public presentation or discretional behaviour. A line director can besides go to to the above-named if he or she does public presentation assessment. In add-on, Line directors besides play a strong portion in structuring people ‘s existent experience of making a occupation. Never the less, it is of import that line directors see through the failings of the work force and usher, train or train them with proper waies where the employees can execute their work in a higher mode. In the function of a line director, they ever involve the employees in communicating, particularly when it comes to taking determinations or work outing a job in the line – this besides known as â€Å" employee battle † . When working as a line director and playing its function, the employees should experience easy and comfy to discourse affairs with their line directors. Therefore, the line directors should be opened to his or hers loyal work force. Last but non the least it is really of import for a line director to acknowledge the part of an employee to his work topographic point.Line Management DutiesTo hold a good working relationship with the people who works under the line directors they will hold to hold some duties that would do it effectual. There are some factors that should be taken in to consideration such as, The Line Manager should do an attempt to construct a relationship with the workers under him that would be productive to the company. When the director builds a good relationship with the workers, the workers will be happy to work and they can hold treatments and derive more thoughts through the workers knowledge every bit good. The squad work with the workers will be really effectual and this will increase the productiveness of the company. The Line Manager should really careful when he conducts the public presentation of the employees since it might impact the employee positively or negatively. The Line Manager must supply more chances to the employees to hold more treatments, more work, and duties of the activities they do in order to acquire them more confident on a regular footing. This will assist the employees know what the marks are and they will be kept remembered. This will assist them remain focussed and work in order to accomplish the mark. The focal point on the public presentation and the work that the employee and director do must be a two manner procedure and both of them should be able to discuses and show their sentiment about the public presentation and what are the factors that affect the concluding result. The Line Manager should put an illustration in a manner that he would be the first one to cite by any employee when a job arises or when a determination must be made. This besides means deriving the regard that is needed by a director must be earned by the Line director. The Line Manager should supply regular updates on information and cognition to the employees in order to maintain them crisp. Some information and cognition can be merely accessed by the director and it is up to the director to guarantee he updates on employees on their employees important countries. The director must do sure he has regular meeting and treatments in order to inform the employees on the development, jobs and besides remind them the ends and aims of the company. So the employees know what is go oning around the company and how they must move to get the better of the issues. The Line Manager must place the employee ‘s strength and failing personally and must be able to do usage of it for the benefit of the company. If an employee has a peculiar strength the director must utilize it to the advantage of the company and if the employee has a failing so the director must assist the employee to get the better of this failing. The Line Manager should appreciate the employees on their good work and every bit good as advice them on the inappropriate work. The director must be able to direct the message straight and do himself clear for the employees. The Line Manager should supply advice and support when it is needed by the employees. The Line Manager should back up the fact that some employees need preparation and he must assist them derive it. To transport out all these duties expeditiously the Line Manager needs to cognize all the employees occupation description and work specification. So when the Line Manager has a clear position on that the lucidity will be when doing determination and every bit good as the Line Manager will cognize the bounds of each employees. So being a Line Manager the directors duties are chiefly holding a good relationship with the employees and understanding their demands and wants and taking them to make the activities that the director requires them to make. Making the employees work in a manner that they are satisfied with their work and allowing them know that the company does care about them in order for them to work with their bosom. Any director must cognize how to acquire to any employee since non all the employees are the same and non everyone will be satisfied with the manner the director treats the employees. Hence, understanding the employee ‘s demands and understanding a manner to derive their regard is really critical.Human resource planningHuman resource planning is the term used to depict how companies guarantee that their staff is the right staff to make the occupations. It is a systematic procedure of fiting the involvement, accomplishments, and endowments of single community members with the l ong term ends and economic chances in the community. This procedure anticipates and maps out the effects of concern scheme on an organisation ‘s human resources. It is reflected in planning of accomplishment and competency demands every bit good as entire head counts. For resourcing schemes to be implemented they must be translated into practical action. The strategic procedure can be organized logically. For these determinations to be taken, information must be obtained, effects gauged, political soundings taken and penchants assessed. A clear Human resource program includes benefits such as: Foregrounding chances for strategic partnership that allow communities and other spouses to portion the benefits, hazards and preparation costs. It provides for little successes that are promoting and actuating for the community members and others that the plan is on path. Making it easy to measure advancement ( particularly client feedback ) and to show funders, spouses, and community members with effectual information about the advancement.The Human Resource Planning ProcessIn order to compartmentalise the Human Resource Planning procedure, it will be broken down under five chief general headers, under which each company will be analyzed against, so that the contrast in how they differ in be aftering procedures can be identifiedEnvironmental AnalysisThe first measure in the human resource planning procedure is to understand the context of human resource direction. Human resource directors should understand both internal and external environments. Datas on external environments includes the followers: the general position of the economic system, industry, engineering and competition ; labour market ordinances and tendencies ; unemployment rate ; skills available ; and the age and sex distribution of the labour force. Internal information required incl ude short- and long-run organisational programs and schemes and the current position of the organisation ‘s human resources. In Standard Chartered, Human Resource Directors have surveyed the environmental sphere and have undertaken activities that enhance their concern public presentation now and for the long-run. They have besides look for ways to guarantee the economic development of the states Standard Chartered Bank operates in, how to hold a positive impact on the environment and society, every bit good as lending to good administration. Human Resources have helped keep an incorporate position of how Standard Chartered does concern – that takes into account economic factors, the environment, community, and good administration. They have identified seven sustainability precedences by confer withing cardinal stakeholders such as authorities, faculty members, socially responsible investors, non-governmental organisations ( NGOs ) and equals. They now deliver on this docket by utilizing the nucleus accomplishments and endowments of their employees ; supplying quality fiscal services ; and leveraging Standard Chartered Bank ‘s geographical footmark and international position to be a ‘force for good ‘ . Standard Chartered Bank ‘s Human Resource Directors have therefore analyzed its environment and have enhanced their labour and employment patterns through corporate bargaining understandings with the Local Unions and focussed interaction with all labour regulative governments and bureaus therefore showing the publicity of the rules of human and labour rights. The Bank besides has a Diversity & A ; Inclusion ( D & A ; I ) Council.Planing the Management SystemA proper concise system is a cri tical necessity and needs to be in topographic point, in order to manage the Human Resource procedure. The overall purpose of this system is to pull off human resources in line with organisational ends. The system is in charge of human resource programs, policies, processs and best patterns. For illustration, the system should track emerging human resource direction tendencies, such as outsourcing certain non-core maps, following flexible work patterns and the increased usage of information engineering, and, if appropriate, implement them. Standard Chartered Bank has signed a seven-year outsourcing contract, deserving US $ 200 million, with Atos Origin for the direction of its informations services substructure in the Asia Pacific part. The understanding covers the bank ‘s informations services in Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. Atos Origin says it will take to present improved public presentation degrees and costs to the bank through the deployment of new engineering and the standardisation of procedures. Commercial Bankss Human Resource system took a different attack and identified a more moneymaking benefit can be made by outsourcing their bing pension strategy. Thus it resulted in the bank engaging Hewitt Outsourcing Services ( India ) Ltd, to change over its bing pension strategy, from a defined benefit program to a defined part program. As a consequence the group post-tax net incomes rose 39.46 per centum to 2.37 billion rupees during the nine month period, compared with the same period last twelvemonth.Analyzing SupplyOrganizations can engage forces from internal and external beginnings. The skill stock lists method is one of the techniques used to maintain path of internal supply. Skill stock lists are manual or computerized systems that keep records of employee experience, instruction and particular accomplishments. A prognosis of the supply of employees projected to fall in the organisation from outside beginnings, given current enlisting activities, is besides necessary. For illustration, Standard Chartered, during the recession, Human Resource analysing the excess in employees, and holding to be cut to co-occur with the new endurance schemes of the company started to take abrasion attack. Attrition is the procedure whereby the bing employees leave their occupations for assorted grounds or gets downsized. Those occupations will be kept vacant or unfilled. Abrasion or hiring freezings or prohibition on employment can be implemented organization-wide or department-wise or job-wise if the Human Resource Manager forecasts a excess work force in the organisation. But if the abrasion rate is uninterrupted and high so it is high clip the concerned governments in the organisation have self-contemplation and take remedial actions. High Attrition is a mark of bad repute for the organisation as a on the job topographic point. Under the analysing supply in footings of Human Resource planning procedure Commercial Bank operates on a different avenue. If future excess is estimated, Commercial Bank has to be after for redisposition, redundancy etc. If excess is estimated in some jobs/department, employees can be redeployed in other jobs/departments where the shortage of employees is estimated. Commercial Bank besides makes programs for preparation or reorientation before redisposition of employees. Redeployment takes topographic point in the signifier of transportations. If the shortage is non estimated in any job/department and excess is estimated for the full organisation, Commercial Bank so, starts audience with the trade brotherhoods and programs for redundancy or retrenchment.Reconciliation and PlanningThe concluding measure in human resource planning is developing action programs based on the gathered informations, analysis and available options. The cardinal issue is that the programs should be acceptab le to both top direction and employees. Plans should be prioritized and their cardinal participants and barriers to success identified. Some of these programs include employee use program, appraisal program, preparation and direction development program and human resource supply program. A good illustration of this would be to travel back to the times where recession hit, and Standard chartered had done extended research on employee use program, and more significantly the retrenchment to maintain them afloat. The HR identified cardinal directors and set into action a redundancy program which was as followed: Standard Chartered redundancy program This program covered type and figure of employees, clip of and topographic point of retrenchment, type of aid to be extended to retrenched employees in the signifier of compensation, aid in acquiring new occupation, precedence in make fulling future vacancies. Redeployment, Redundancy/Retrenchment Plans: 1. Outplacement: Outplacement plans besides intended to supply calling counsel for displaced employees. This plans covers retraining the prospective displaced employees who can be redeployed elsewhere in the organisation, assisting in sketch authorship, interview techniques, occupation searching. 2. Layoffs: Layoffs can be impermanent or lasting. Impermanent layoffs are due to the inanition in concern, machinery breakage, power failure etc. Workers are called back every bit shortly as work sketchs to the normal place. Permanent layoff is due to settlement of the company. Proper human resource planning go forthing the work force at proper degree can assist to cut down this consequence. 3. Leave of Absence without Pay: This technique helps SC to cut the labour cost and the employee to prosecute his ego involvements. This technique besides helps the company to program for extinguishing the unneeded occupation in a phased mode. This construct serves or a productive method to assist employees fix for future alterations. Work Sharing: Some countries of SC offer employees the chance to portion occupations or two employees working one-half clip each. This technique solves the job of retrenchment in the short tally. This is in trend in advanced states but non acceptable to workers brotherhoods particularly within the Asiatic part. Reduced Working Hourss: Under this technique, each worker, works less hours, and receives less wage, so that two occupations are saved. Again this is non prevailing in the Asiatic part and other developing states. Voluntary/ Early Retirement: Another issue is early retirement. SC has taken a page from the Government of India who introduced Voluntary Retirement Scheme under the caption ‘Golden Handshake ‘ in order to work out the job of overstaffing in Public sector. This technique solves the job of inordinate supply of future stock list over the demand for the human resources. In short it is popularly called as VRS.Evaluation of the Recruitment & A ; Selection Procedure of Both Standard Chartered Bank and Commercial Bank.Recruitment: The purpose of the enlisting is to guarantee that the Organization ‘s demand for employees is met by pulling possible employees ( recruits ) in a cost effectual and timely mode. Choice: Employee Selection is the procedure of seting right work forces on right occupation. It is a process of fiting organisational demands with the accomplishments and makings of people. Effective choice can be done merely when there is effectual fiting. By choosing best campaigner for the needed occupation, the organisation will acquire choice public presentation of employees.Standard Chartered BankRecruitment procedure of Standard Chartered BankThe bank ‘s Management Development Scheme takes topographic point in Colombo, where they recruit direction trainees. Never the less, Standard Chartered Bank has provided the chance for those campaigners who are interested in this strategy to use to their local metropoliss. Per twelvemonth about 40 direction associates are been recruited. The purpose of the direction is to enroll alumnuss and station alumnuss with different backgrounds and experiences yet, the best and the brightest endowment in market.Whom do they enroll?Young and g ifted alumnuss or graduate students, who are willing to get down their calling in the fiscal service industry Career-oriented individual Consistent academic performing artist throughout his/her instruction Innovative, ambitious, energetic and concern oriented individualRecruitment standardsStandard Chartered Bank recruits the most gifted persons from the external market to supplement their internal grapevine of endowment. Their Human Resources section provides counsel on the usage of psychometric trials and has robust enlisting standards to guarantee that all campaigners are treated reasonably, every bit and with regard. It has a planetary Graduate Recruitment Program ; where in the part of 150 alumnuss are recruited each twelvemonth on a direction trainee plan across all concerns, maps and states.Analysis for Standard Chartered Banks enlistingHuman Resource Recruitment is defined as any pattern or activity carried on by the organisation with the primary intent of placing and pulling possible employees. The end of an organisational enlisting plan is to guarantee that the organisation has a figure of moderately qualified appliers ( who would happen the occupation acceptable ) to take fr om when a vacancy occurs.Selection Process of Standard Chartered BankEmployee choices at Standard Chartered Bank are based on cognition, accomplishments and endowment. The bank is committed to supply the equal chances to all employees irrespective of gender, race, age, disablement, nationality, cultural beginning or stuff position. Never the less, Standard Chartered Bank besides identifies what alone strengths each single brings, to the functions they carry out and the development of these strengths. Standard Chartered Bank largely uses face-to-face interviews as their choice method. Therefore, when suited appliers are been chosen through the enlisting procedure the bank set assignments for interviews with them. Afterwards, upon reaching, have each interviewee fill out a occupation application signifier and give them a transcript of the place ‘s written occupation description. After interviews are completed, human resource director of Standard Chartered Bank selects two or three campaigners that tantrums for the vacant occupation and hold them come in for a follow-up interview. This is where the direction discuses about wage, benefits etc. Thereafter, the concluding employee choice takes topographic point based upon these second-level interviews and makes an offer to the Human Resource Manager ‘s first pick.Analysis for Standard Charted Banks choiceAny organisation that intends to vie through people must take the uttermost attention with how it chooses organisational members. Personnel choice is the procedure by which companies decide who will or will non be allowed into their organisation. Several generic criterions should be met in any choice procedure, which are dependability, cogency, public-service corporation, and legality. Standard Chartered selects employees based on cognition, accomplishments and endowment. They are committed to supplying equality of chance to all employees, irrespective of gender, race, nationality, age, disablement, cultural beginning, or matrimonial position.Commercial BankRecruitment Process of Commercial BankThe human resources staff at Commercial Bank first makes certain recruitment programs are set based on concern ends and analysing of history. Then looks at the occupation a demand and list the accomplishments, cognition, experience and ability needed. Chiefly the enlisting activities of the bank are carried out at least four times per twelvemonth. Shown below are some figures, which have been taken from a past twelvemonth. Five employees retired under normal retirements. Fifteen resigned under voluntary retirement. Four resigned Four dismissed. Three expired during the period under position. Commercial Bank has besides come up with new enlisting chances due to the enlargement of the bank. Therefore, to make full these vacancies Commercial Bank follows the internal and external enlisting methods. Whereas, it should be noted that when there is a vacancy the bank first attempts to make full the infinite with an bing employee by following the internal enlisting method. If the demands can non be met by the internal method so they move into the external enlisting. In add-on, it is clear that the bank follows both ways to choose the best campaigner.The internal processThis method is used to make full a vacancy of Commercial Bank, utilizing an bing employee with the right demands and makings. Therefore, if there is any vacancy the direction of the bank will publicize it in the internal newssheet, which is handed over to all the employees doing more infinite for chances. Within one hebdomad ‘s clip if the bank finds a suited individual from the company itself to make full t he vacant place, most likely they are given the occupation. Commercial Bank faces many advantages due to the internal enlisting method. They are as show below, Cost effectiveness – the bank should put money upon enlisting, choice and preparation & A ; development when picking an employee externally. This can cut off by the internal method of enlisting. Gives more motive to all the employees and leads to publicities. Increase committedness to the company by the employees.The external processCommercial Bank depends on external labour market, when they do non happen bing employees who has the required cognition, experience or accomplishments for the vacant chance. The human resource section of the bank will be informed by the direction of the several sections, which has occupation vacancies and will be provided with the description of the occupation and other information. The occupation description contains the undermentioned information, Job rubric Title of immediate supervisors ‘ occupation Purpose of the occupation Number of subsidiaries Duties of the occupation Limits of authorization Career of the occupation Ad is a important measure when it comes to enrolling and pulling the best campaigners. By placing the societal and rational accomplishments, the Human Resource section will fix the advertizements. When it comes to publicizing vacancies Commercial Bank chiefly uses the newspaper advertisement method and their web site. Commercial Bank uses the undermentioned rules for effectual advertisement, Explains the inside informations about the company Advertises under the company name Provides sufficient inside informations about the vacant place Points out personal demands States the chief footings and conditions of employment States whom the application should be directed After the applications are been handed out, the human resource section will split the applications as required into relevant classs. Thereafter, the divided application signifiers will be given to the relevant sections with the vacancies. The recruitment process takes rather a long clip since the human resource section has entangle in a burden of work and should set a batch of attempt.Summary of the enlisting procedure of Commercial BankThe human resource section receives request for enlisting of employees from several sections of the bank Job analysis The human resource director gathers information. The enlisting method ( internal or external ) is been decided by the direction A list is prepared with the needed makings, accomplishments and cognition Preparation of occupation notices Roll uping the received applications Reducing and picking the appropriate campaignersEvaluation of external & A ; internal methods of enlistingBoth the organisations that have been discussed above utilizations both internal and external enlisting methods. Yet, it should be noticed that for an organisation it is more cost effectual to utilize the internal method. It is clear that a company has to set aside a certain sum when it comes to the procedures of enrolling choosing and developing & A ; development. Therefore, if the company can happen an bing employee with the right demands to make full up a vacancy, the cost will be less as for the above procedures would non hold to be practiced. However, the internal method can besides keep a disadvantage. By enrolling, a campaigner externally may convey more cognition, accomplishments and diverseness to the organisation. In certain cases, the internal method would non be eligible to make so. Therefore, by external enlisting the organisation will be able to happen the best campaigners for the vacant occupation than from the internal method. Hereby, it is clear that both internal and external methods are valuable for an organisation in the enlisting procedure.Selection Process of Commercial BankCommercial Banks direction explores both internal and external beginnings for replacing demands. Internal enlisting is where the bank is supplied with the work force within the company itself. This can be an action of either reassigning or publicity. There are many unvarying ways Commercial Bank uses their internal enlisting method. Mostly the bank uses the stock lists, which is besides known as a computerized database that is containe d with the basic information of all the employees. The stock list carries the information about each employee ‘s accomplishments, cognition, public presentation and other relevant features. Commercial Banks choice procedure is an effort to happen the qualified and best campaigners for vacant occupations in the organisation. Therefore, one time the enlisting procedure is taken topographic point the direction of the bank finds the best fitting people to make full the available infinites through the choice procedure. For this, several different methods such as choice trials, preliminary showings and comprehensive interviews are held at Commercial Bank.Choice TechniquesChoice can be defined as the procedure of taking the most suited campaigners from those who apply for the occupation or the pool of appliers. For this intent, organisations use assorted choice techniques such as, Interviews Presentations Psychometric Trials Aptitude Trials Psychological Trials The dependability of these choice techniques depends on the extent or the grade to which the choice technique measures the same point systematically. It should be noted that these choice techniques can either be written or in the signifier of interviews. However, in all state of affairss, for the rating to be accurate and to choose the best campaigner same inquiries should be put frontward. Further, the cogency of information gathered about the campaigners through assorted choice techniques would depend on certain factors. These factors are, The relationship between the choice technique and the appropriate standard What the choice technique steps and the quality of the technique The choice technique must be relevant to the occupationInterviewsAn interview could be defined as ; a choice process designed to foretell the future occupation public presentation on the footing of appliers ‘ unwritten response to unwritten enquiries. These interviews could be either conducted by an single individual or a panel. Interviews can be categorized based on their construction or the degree of standardisation, i.e. Unstructured, Semi – Structured and Structured. Unstructured Interviews: Unstructured interviews involve a process where different inquiries would be asked from different appliers. They are unplanned, non – directed, uncontrolled and flexible. Open ended inquiries would be asked in such interviews. Semi – Structured Interviews: Semi – Structured Interviews are normally pre – scheduled, have some degree of flexibleness and the major countries which are analyzed would be controlled. Structured Interviews: Structured Interviews are besides known as Guided Interviews. They are pre – planned, standardized and pre – formatted. There is no flexibleness in such interviews. The inquiries asked would non be unfastened ended inquiries. Beyond this there are four types of common choice interviews which are used for the choice procedure. These interviews are, Situation Interviews: Situational Interviews would analyse the conjectural public presentation of a campaigner. This would be done through state of affairs oriented oppugning based on the occupation. These interviews would be conducted by specialised people. Job Related Interviews: Job Related Interviews are normally conducted by Human Resource Managers. In this type of interview the interviewee ‘s behaviour during old occupations would be analyzed. Psychological Interviews: Psychological Interviews exist to buttockss personality traits of interviewees. Competency Interviews: Competence Interviews are an enlargement of Psychological Interviews. These interviews analyze the competences of an interviewee. Competences such as interpersonal accomplishments, leading and other such countries would be analyzed.Advantages and Disadvantages of InterviewsPresentationsPresentations could be used for the choice procedure depending on the manner how presentations will associate to the occupation description and the normal on the job patterns expected of the station. In presentations it would be really of import to hold decided standards against which each campaigner will be marked. This standard may include points which would be assessed at an interview excessively, for illustration through a presentation the campaigners communication accomplishments could be assessed where as this could be done through an interview every bit good. Besides, the campaigner ‘s ability to nowadayss facts to an audience could be assessed utilizing a presentati on but this could be done at an interview through the use of a panel of interviewers as good. However, a presentation could be used to analyse how a campaigner would be able to show his thoughts to a wider audience than which will be present at an interview. Presentations could besides be utile to understand how rapidly a campaigner will be able to understand and construe a subject given to him. Beyond this, presentation could be a really good method to mensurate the degree of ego assurance a campaigner has. Since presentations would by and large devour a batch of clip it could be said to be a major disadvantage of presentations and besides since a presentation would be sing a peculiar given subject it will be given to restrict the countries in which an person ‘s cognition could be analyzed. Whereas, interviews would be less clip consuming and a broad country of the campaigner ‘s cognition could be analyzed through unwritten inquiring. Further, unlike interviews, since presentations could be used merely for a occupation which would necessitate presentations skills this would non be a really suited method for the choice procedure.Psychometric TrialsPsychometric Trials would supply information sing how a campaigner would act towards his directors, equals and subsidiaries ; fundamentally relationship edifice accomplishments. These trials would lend about 10 % towards the concluding determination and would normally necessitate confirmation from the campaigner itself. This could b e considered as a disadvantage as certain information could be forged. Further, for these trials to be carried out decently trained assessors are required. By sing the degree of part towards the concluding determination it is clear that this type of trial entirely would non be sufficient for the choice procedure and therefore this would hold to be used in combination with some other choice techniques such as interviews. Hence it is possible to get at the decision that interviews could be more dependable than such trials and is a better choice technique with regard to psychometric trials.Other TrialsThere are assorted trials which could be used to asses a campaigner ‘s capableness when information gathered through interviews and Curriculum Vitae go less dependable. However, one major drawback of such trials is that these trials do non supply any information sing the personality of the campaigner or sing his communicating accomplishments and besides these trials would merely men surate facets such as cognition. Based on the above information it was possible to get at the decision that from among the above mentioned choice techniques, interviews would be the most appropriate method of choice for many state of affairss. This could be said on the footing that interviews cover up a wider scope of facets of a campaigner such as the cognition, communicating accomplishments, attitude, personality and etc. when compared to other methods. Further, unlike other techniques of choice such as psychometric trials, interviews could be used entirely without utilizing a combination of choice techniques. Therefore, interviews could be identified as one of the most suited choice techniques. However, it could be recommended that if in deepness information is required sing some peculiar country of a campaigner a combination of choice techniques could be used.Job EvaluationJob Evaluation could be defined as the procedure which is used to measure the comparative worth of different occupations on the footing of a consistent set of occupations and personal factors such as makings and accomplishments. The aim of Job Evaluation is to find the wage for a occupation in comparing to other occupations. There are chiefly three methods which are used for the Job Evaluation procedure. These methods are, Job Ranking – This method is one of the simplest methods which are used to measure a occupation. Jobs are compared to each other based on the overall worth of the occupation to the organisation. This is normally decided on accomplishment, attempt, duty and working conditions. Job Classification – Jobs are classified into an bing grade/category construction or hierarchy. Each degree in the grade/category construction has a description and associated occupation rubrics. Each occupation is assigned to the grade/category supplying the closest lucifer to the occupation. The categorization of a place is decided by comparing the whole occupation with the appropriate occupation rating criterion. Factor Comparison – A set of paying factors are identified to find the worth of the occupation. These factors could be accomplishments, duty, attempt and on the job conditions. The weight of the factors to the occupation will make up one's mind the wage. However, even though there are assorted methods for Job Evaluation, such as those mentioned above, harmonizing to research each method is about every bit accurate and dependable as the other in ranking and pricing different occupations. These Job Evaluations form the footing for rewards and salary dialogues.Job Evaluation at Standard Chartered BankA systematic and a scientific method of occupation rating have been followed at Standard chartered Bank. In fact, it has been possible to place that the method of occupation rating which is followed at Standard Chartered Bank is the factor comparing method. Even though this possibly one of the most hard methods of Job Evaluation it could be identified as a consistent and an appreciable method. Under this method of Job Evaluation, alternatively of ranking complete occupations each occupation would be ranked harmonizing to some factor such as accomplishment needed, cognize – how, answerability, etc. Using this method, payment and rewar ds would be decided sing weight – age of the factors required for the occupation. The Bank purposes at engaging specialised people and their recruiting standards are based on their cognition, expertness, past working experience and their exposure to the professional Fieldss. Employee rewards are set in conformity with the aforesaid enlisting standards and most of them are content with what they earn at Standard Chartered Bank Standard Chartered has some rules in measuring the occupation and these are some of their rules in occupation rating. All occupations in the organisation will be evaluated utilizing an in agreement occupation rating strategy. Job rating is concerned with occupations, non people. It is non the individual that is being evaluated. Jobs are assessed as if it were being carried out in a to the full competent and acceptable mode.Job Evaluation at Commercial BankThe demand for a place to be officially evaluated occurs as a consequence of important alterations or growing in the function or to the work required to be performed in a place. Commercial Bank uses the occupation categorization method to measure their employees. In this method, employees would be fundamentally separated in to assorted categories depending on their occupation and wage for that peculiar group would be in a about same scope. Applications for rating may be submitted to the Human Resource Department for this intent. The Job Evaluation application must be based on one or more of the undermentioned standards: Ongoing important alteration ( s ) to the range or map required of the place ; Change ( s ) to the place following a restructure of the immediate organisational country ; Change ( s ) to the place as a consequence of redesign or alteration ( s ) to other occupations that straight affect the maps and/or focal point of the place ; Change ( s ) to the place as a consequence of the restructure of another organisational country that straight affects the map and/or focal point of the place. Applications are non accepted on the footing of general dissatisfaction with the current place categorization or the volume of the work undertaken. The wage of an employee would be distinct base on chiefly the category to which an employee falls. Other than that Commercial Bank considers facets such as the accomplishments, preparation and development, practical working experience in similar Fieldss and besides instruction or cognition in relevant Fieldss. This would assist Commercial Bank to put their employees in a more suited category and besides to make up one's mind on a fairer wage of which the employee would be satisfied. When sing the occupation rating procedure at Commercial Bank it is clear that the bank follows the occupation categorization method. When sing the other three methods of occupation rating this could be classified as the easiest method. Beyond this, it could be seen that the bank follows a more rigorous attack which would non let all employees who think that they have been below the belt compensated to use for a occupation rating. This could be considered a drawback as employees would be given to acquire disgruntled and leave the organisation.

Friday, August 16, 2019

World War II

Who was Joe Louis, why is he important, and why did he help to increase black enlistment into the military? He was important because he defeated a white boxer and encouraged blacks to enlist In the army 2. What was the first concentration camp and when was it set up? Dachas, 1933 3. What groups of people were targeted during the Holocaust? Jews, Gypsies, Polish Catholic, Russians, mentally and physically disabled, homosexuals, and political prisoners. 4. What was the â€Å"Final Solution†? The mass murder of Jews 5.Based on the reading, describe Auschwitz. More than 1. 6 million were killed in Auschwitz, they didn't feed babies to see how long they could survive 6. During the asses, how was widespread anti-Semitism demonstrate by the US? The US only let 10 percent of the quota of Jewish people allowed into the country 7. How many nations were involved in ‘MINI and where did fighting take place? 70 nations were involved. 8. How many people participated In the war and how many people died? Over 70 million people served 9. Which nation suffered the greatest number of deaths? Which nation suffered the least?Soviet troops, Germans, and Japanese suffered the most and Americans suffered the least amount of death 10. In what ways did the world change because of the war? The world is more observant of situations and people like Hitler and WI lead to the Nuclear age 11. How was US sentiments about international relations prior to WI similar to feelings prior to WWW? Because before WWW they were striving for Isolationism and they are striving for It again after WI 12. Why was the Kellogg- Brand Pact unsuccessful? Because the other nations didn't agree with it so the other nations went to war anyways and tried bringing America into it. 3. In 1935, how did a large percentage of college students feel about war? Why did many people feel this way? They weren't going to fight even if they were invaded 14. What was Merchants of Death and what did It argue? It was a book that said that the United States had been drawn into the European war by international arms manufacturers who had deliberately fomented conflict In order to market their products 15. What was Mien Kampala and what did It call for? Mien Kampala means my struggle. It laid out Hitless plan for Germany. 16. Why was Doll Hitler imprisoned?Because he and his Anza party took over the 5 year old republic of Germany. The Beer Hall Putsch 17. What actions did Hitler take after becoming the chancellor of Germany? He outlawed labor unions, imposed newspaper censorship, and decreed that the Nazis would be the only political party of Germany. He also established a I OFF the age of 10 to Join youth organizations and follow Nazi beliefs. 18. What were the Unmerge Laws and what did they do? Forbade intermarriages, restricted property rights, and barred Jews from the civil service, the universities, and all professional and managerial occupations. . What did Japan do because of their lack of ra w materials? What was the reaction of the US? They invaded Manchuria.. President Hoover rejected a military response. 20. As Japan ignored the reaction, what actions did they take during the asses? What was the reaction of the US? In December 1937, Japanese aircraft bombed the Panky, a U. S. Gunboat stationed on the Yanking River. The United States accepted Japan's apology 21 . What event took place in Nanking and how did the US react? In December 1937, Japanese aircraft bombed the Panky, a U. S. Gunboat stationed on theYanking River. The United States accepted Japan's apology 22. Who led Italy throughout WI? Bonito Mussolini 23. What was Italy's political party and how was it similar to Hitter's Germany? Fascism. He said he would end political corruption and labor struggles Just like Hitler. 24. What were Italy's aspirations regarding Africa? To make an Italian empire in North Africa, 25. What actions did Germany take after dropping out of the League of Nations? He went seeking mor e land in England 26. What areas was Hitler able to annex without interference of Britain and France? Austria 27.What is appeasement and why were Britain and France looked at as appeasing Germany? Appeasement is to make someone happy. They kept giving Germany breaks 28. What was agreed upon in the German-Soviet non-aggression pact? That the soviet union could have control over Poland 29. What event caused the war to begin and what was Germany's war tactic? WWW. Germany's war tactic was tip become the master race 30. Who became Prime Minister of Britain during the war? Winston Churchill 31 . What was the German Air Force called? Luftwaffe 32. After failing to destroy Britain, what actions did Germany take?They invaded Belgium 33. What events occurred between Deck. 6 and Deck. 11, 1941? Soviet forces repulsed the German attacks on Moscow. This was Hitter's first defeat 34. Between 1935 and 1941, how was the US involved in the war? We responded to the war by issuing a proclamation of n eutrality. In 1941 the President offered a Lend- Lease aid to the Soviet union. 35. What actions did the US take against Japan because of their expansion throughout Asia? America froze all Japanese bank accounts in the US. 36. When did the bombing of Pearl Harbor occur? Deck 7th 1941 not destroyed the ship repair facilities. 8.What was the US reaction to the bombing of Pearl Harbor? The US declared war on Japan 39. How did the war affect US economy? Give specific examples. The war brought unprecedented prosperity to America. 40. How did WI affect American fashion? Women had to work so they couldn't wear more feminine clothes so they had to wear more masculine clothes 41 . What happened to the NAACP during the war? Their membership went from 50,000 to 500,00 thousand. 42. What was â€Å"Rosier the Riveter† and did it represent? She was the popular image of of women who abandoned traditional female occupations to work in defense industry. 3. What role did Mexican Americans play during the war? Almost 400,000 served during the war. 44. How were Mexican Americans treated in Los Angels during the war? Many youth gangs erupted in Los Angels 45. How was the naturalization of Italian, German, and Japanese immigrants to the US affected during the war? They weren't allowed to in mass numbers. 46. What were Internment Camps? How did Sauerkraut v. US relate to these camps? Internment camps were for immigrants when they wanted to move into another country but they had to go to camps.Because a US military official told Sauerkraut to go too camp and he said no and then he went to Jail. 47. How many people died at Straddling? 850,000 48. Before invading France, where did the US and British forces begin fighting? Germany 49. When did the allied invasion of France begin and what was it referred to as? 50. How/when did Hitler die? April 30th 1945. Gunshot to the head 51 . When was V-E day? May 8th 52. What were the US' two strategies to defeat Japan and who led each of th ese? 53. What was the Enola Gay? Boeing 8-29 Superstores bomber

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Government is the monopoly of legitimate use of physical power” Essay

Functions of the Ruling Officer: * Promote interest and welfare of the people * For the benefit of the governed * Protection of the inhabitants * Administration of justice * Advancement of the physical, economical, social and cultural well- being of the people * Preservation of the state from danger (internal & external) Ideal Qualities of Governing Politician: * Shall have the brains and ability * Political maturity * Experience â€Å"In order to govern people he does not know or understand, he ought to possess the talent of a genius and extraordinary knowledge.† * Jose Rizal â€Å"The government who fulfils the satisfaction of human expectation is good. The Government that DOES NOT serve the needs of the people but governs to protect the interest and welfare of a few at the expense of many is not good.† * Zulueta â€Å" Government is the monopoly of legitimate use of physical power† * Max Weber * The government is committed to promote: * general welfare, * morals, * intelligence, * social justice * Ultimate happiness Rizal on the Family * Family- the basic and oldest social institution, a very important factor in shaping the character of a child. Family determines: * Child’s social class * Religious orientation * Language * Upbringing of the children Children are Expected to be: * Loyal * Obedient Parents’ Legacies to children: * Rectitude of judgement * Generosity of rights * Steadfastness in adversity â€Å" The greatest honour that a son can pay his parents is integrity and a good name.† Rizal on Livelihood * Rizal vehemently objected Carl Marx’s Communist ideology. * He regarded livelihood as the government’s focal points to alleviate poverty Communism * ideology referring to the equal distribution of wealth. * The government scoops up all the wealth and distributes them evenly or as needed. Means of having a viable livelihood program: * Equal land ownership * Regulation of capital * Government buys from landlords and place it on workers â€Å"Regulation of Capital† was essential to combat the ill effects of capitalism. Each person’s wealth is based on his own personal production. Rizal on Justice â€Å" Justice is a constant and perpetual will to allot to every man what he is due.† Twin ideals of Justice System * Swiftness- occurrence of a speedy trial * Fairness- justice itself â€Å"Justice delayed is justice denied.† No person shall be deprived of life, liberty and property without due process of law.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Life and Work of John Bowlby

Bowlby was born in London to an upper-middle-class family. He was the fourth of six children and was brought up by a nanny in the British fashion of his class at that time. His father, Sir Anthony Bowlby, first Baronet, was surgeon to the King's Household, with a tragic history: at age five, Sir Anthony's own father (John's grandfather) was killed while serving as a war correspondent in the Opium Wars. Normally, Bowlby saw his mother only one hour a day after teatime, though during the summer she was more available. Like many other mothers of her social class, she considered that parental attention and affection would lead to dangerous spoiling of the children. Bowlby was lucky in that the nanny in his family was present throughout his childhood. [1] When Bowlby was almost four years old, his beloved nanny, who was actually his primary caretaker in his early years, left the family. Later, he was to describe this as tragic as the loss of a mother. At the age of seven, he was sent off to boarding school, as was common for boys of his social status. In his work Separation: Anxiety and Anger, he revealed that he regarded it as a terrible time for him. He later said, â€Å"I wouldn't send a dog away to boarding school at age seven†. [2] Because of such experiences as a child, he displayed a sensitivity to children’s suffering throughout his life. However, with his characteristic attentiveness to the effects of age differences, Bowlby did consider boarding schools appropriate for children aged eight and older, and wrote, â€Å"If the child is maladjusted, it may be useful for him to be away for part of the year from the tensions which produced his difficulties, and if the home is bad in other ways the same is true. The boarding school has the advantage of preserving the child's all-important home ties, even if in slightly attenuated form, and, since it forms part of the ordinary social pattern of most Western communities today [1951], the child who goes to boarding-school will not feel different from other children. Moreover, by relieving the parents of the children for part of the year, it will be possible for some of them to develop more favorable attitudes toward their children during the remainder. [3] He married Ursula Longstaff, herself the daughter of a surgeon, on April 16, 1938, and they had four children, including (Sir) Richard Bowlby, who succeeded his uncle as third Baronet. Bowlby died at his summer home on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Career Bowlby studied psychology and pre-clinical sciences at Trinity College, Cambridge, winning prizes for outstanding intellectual performance. After Cambridge, he worked with maladjusted and delinquent children, then at the age of twenty-two enrolled at University College Hospital in London. At the age of twenty-six, he qualified in medicine. While still in medical school he enrolled himself in the Institute for Psychoanalysis. Following medical school, he trained in adult psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital. In 1937, aged 30, he qualified as a psychoanalyst. During World War II, he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Army Medical Corps. After the war, he was Deputy Director of the Tavistock Clinic, and from 1950, Mental Health Consultant to the World Health Organization. Because of his previous work with maladapted and delinquent children, he became interested in the development of children and began work at the Child Guidance Clinic in London. This interest was probably increased by a variety of wartime events involving separation of young children from familiar people; these included the rescue of Jewish children by the Kindertransport arrangements, the evacuation of children from London to keep them safe from air raids, and the use of group nurseries to allow mothers of young children to contribute to the war effort. [4] Bowlby was interested from the beginning of his career in the problem of separation and the wartime work of Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham on evacuees and Rene Spitz on orphans. By the late 1950s he had accumulated a body of observational and theoretical work to indicate the fundamental importance for human development of attachment from birth. [2] Bowlby was interested in finding out the actual patterns of family interaction involved in both healthy and pathological development. He focused on how attachment difficulties were transmitted from one generation to the next. In his development of attachment theory he propounded the idea that attachment behaviour was essentially an evolutionary survival strategy for protecting the infant from predators. Mary Ainsworth, a student of Bowlby’s, further extended and tested his ideas, and in fact played the primary role in suggesting that several attachment styles existed. The three most important experiences for Bowlby’s future work and the development of attachment theory were his work with: Maladapted and delinquent children. James Robertson (in 1952) in making the documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital, which was one of the films about †young children in brief separationâ€Å". The documentary illustrated the impact of loss and suffering experienced by young children separated from their primary caretakers. This film was instrumental in a campaign to alter hospital restrictions on visiting by parents. In 1952 when he and Robertson presented their film A Two Year Old Goes to Hospital to the British Psychoanalytical Society, psychoanalysts did not accept that a child would mourn or experience grief on separation but instead saw the child's distress as caused by elements of unconscious fantasies (in the film because the mother was pregnant). Melanie Klein during his psychoanalytic training. She was his supervisor; however they had different views about the role of the mother in the treatment of a three-year-old boy. Specifically and importantly, Klein stressed the role of the child's fantasies about his mother, but Bowlby emphasized the actual history of the relationship. Bowlby's views—that children were responding to real life events and not unconscious fantasies—were rejected by psychoanalysts, and Bowlby was effectively ostracized by the psychoanalytic community. He later expressed the view that his interest in real-life experiences and situations was â€Å"alien to the Kleinian outlook†. [2] Maternal deprivation Main article: Maternal deprivation In 1949, Bowlby's earlier work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospitalised and institutionalised care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organization's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe. [5] The result was Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. [6] Bowlby drew together such limited empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA. His main conclusions, that â€Å"the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment† and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences, were both controversial and influential. The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children, and in changing practices relating to the visiting of infants and small children n hospitals by parents. The theoretical basis was controversial in many ways. He broke with psychoanalytic theories which saw infants' internal life as being determined by fantasy rather than real life events. Some critics profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal (or equivalent) love in order to function normally,[7] or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting. [8] Others questioned the extent to which his hypothesis was supported by the evidence. There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation (no primary attachment figure) and deprivation (loss of the primary attachment figure) and in particular, a failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that may affect children in institutions. [9] The monograph was also used for political purposes to claim any separation from the mother was deleterious in order to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. 9] In 1962 WHO published Deprivation of maternal care: A Reassessment of its Effects to which Mary Ainsworth, Bowlby's close colleague, contributed with his approval, to present the recent research and developments and to address misapprehensions. [10] This publication also attempted to address the previous lack of evidence on the effects of paternal deprivation. According to Rutter the importance of Bowlby's initial writings on ‘maternal deprivation' lay in his emphasis that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development. 8] Development of attachment theory Bowlby himself explained in his 1988 work â€Å"A Secure Base† that the data were not, at the time of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health, â€Å"accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organization there was no possibility of developing a new one†. He then went on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. 11] Because he was dissatisfied with traditional theories, Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infants tie emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. [12] â€Å"Bowlby realised that he had to develop a new theory of motivation and behaviour control, built on up-to-date science rather than the outdated psychic energy model espoused by Freud. [5] Bowlby expressed himself as having made good the â€Å"deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect† in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published in 1969. [13] Ethology and evolutionary concepts â€Å"From the 1950s Bowlby was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology, namely Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and especially the rising star of ethology Robert Hinde. Using the viewpoints of this emerging science and reading extensively in the ethology literature, Bowlby developed new explanatory hypotheses for what is now known as human attachment behaviour. In particular, on the basis of ethological evidence he was able to reject the dominant Cupboard Love theory of attachment prevailing in psychoanalysis and learning theory of the 1940s and 1950s. He also introduced the concepts of environmentally stable or labile human behaviour allowing for the revolutionary combination of the idea of a species-specific genetic bias to become attached and the concept of individual differences in attachment security as environmentally labile strategies for adaptation to a specific childrearing niche. Alternately, Bowlby’s thinking about the nature and function of the caregiver-child relationship influenced ethological research, and inspired students of animal behaviour such as Tinbergen, Hinde, and Harry Harlow. Bowlby spurred Hinde to start his ground breaking work on attachment and separation in primates (monkeys and humans), and in general emphasized the importance of evolutionary thinking about human development that foreshadowed the new interdisciplinary approach of evolutionary psychology. Obviously, the encounter of ethology and attachment theory led to a genuine cross-fertilization† (Van der Horst, Van der Veer & Van IJzendoorn, 2007, p. 321). [14][15] The â€Å"Attachment and Loss† trilogy Main articles: Attachment theory and Attachment in children Before the publication of the trilogy in 1969, 1972 and 1980, the main tenets of attachment theory, building on concepts from ethology and developmental psychology, were presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society in London in three now classic papers: The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother (1958), Separation Anxiety (1959), and Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early Childhood (1960). Bowlby rejected psychoanalyst explanations for attachment, and in return, psychoanalysts rejected his theory. At about the same time, Bowlby's former colleague, Mary Ainsworth was completing extensive observational studies on the nature of infant attachments in Uganda with Bowlby's ethological theories in mind. Her results in this and other studies contributed greatly to the subsequent evidence base of attachment theory as presented in 1969 in Attachment the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy. [16] The second and third volumes, Separation: Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in 1972 and 1980 respectively. Attachment was revised in 1982 to incorporate recent research. According to attachment theory, attachment in infants is primarily a process of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure in situations of perceived distress or alarm for the purpose of survival. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about 6 months to two years of age. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to ‘internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings, thoughts, and expectations in later relationships. [5] In Bowlby's approach, the human infant is considered to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers, without which normal social and emotional development will not occur. As the toddler grows, it uses its attachment figure or figures as a â€Å"secure base† from which to explore. Mary Ainsworth used this feature plus â€Å"stranger wariness† and reunion behaviours, other features of attachment behaviour, to develop a research tool called the â€Å"Strange Situation Procedure† for developing and classifying different attachment styles. The attachment process is not gender specific as infants will form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. The quality of the social engagement appears to be more influential than amount of time spent. 16] Darwin biography Bowlby's last work, published posthumously, is a biography of Charles Darwin, which discusses Darwin's â€Å"mysterious illness† and whether it was psychosomatic. [17] Bowlby's legacy Main article: Attachment theory Although not without its critics, attachment theory has been described as the dominant approach to understanding early social development and to have given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships. 18] As it is presently formulated and used for research purposes, Bowlby's attachment theory stresses the following important tenets:[19] 1) Children between 6 and about 30 months are very likely to form emotional attachments to familiar caregivers, especially if the adults are sensitive and responsive to child communications. 2) The emotional attachments of young children are shown behaviourally in their preferences for particular familiar people, their tendency to seek proximity to those people, especially in times of distress, and their ability to use the familiar adults as a secure base from which to explore the environment. ) The formation of emotional attachments contributes to the foundation of later emotional and personality development, and the type of behaviour toward familiar adults shown by toddlers has some continuity with the social behaviours they will show later in life. 4) Events that interfere with attachment, such as abrupt separation of the toddler from familiar people or the significant inability of carers to be sensitive, responsive or consistent in their interactions, have short-term and possible long-term negative impacts on the child's emotional and cognitive life.

Assessing The Confucianism On Relationships Cultural Studies Essay

Assessing The Confucianism On Relationships Cultural Studies Essay Confucianism has been the main foundation of traditional thought that is deeply rooted in Chinese society. Confucianism is ethical teachings rather than a religion as described in Western literatures. Confucianism is widely regarded as the behavioral or moral regulations that are mainly concerned with human relationships, social structures, virtuous behavior and work ethics. In Confucianism, rules are specified for the social behavior of every individual, governing the entire range of interpersonal relations within the society. The core virtues of Confucius basic teaching can be extracted as Ren (Humanity), Yi (Righteousness), Li (Propriety), Zhi (Wisdom) and Xin (Faithfulness). According to Confucius, each person had a specific place in society, certain rules to follow and certain duties to fulfill. Confucius hoped that if people knew what was expected of them they would behave accordingly. He, therefore, set up Five Cardinal Relations, in which most people are involved, moreover h e also laid down the principles for each relation. These can be illustrated as follows: Basic Human Relations Principles Sovereign and subject (master and follower) Loyalty and duty Father and son Love and obedience Elder and younger brothers Seniority and modeling subject Husband and wife Obligation and submission Friend and friend Trust Source: Fan, 2000 All of these five, except the last, involve the authority of one person over another. Power and the right to rule belong to superiors over subordinates. Each person has to give obedience and respect to his/her ‘superiors’; the subject to his/her ruler, the wife to her husband, the son to his parents, and the younger brother to the older brother. The ‘superior’, however, owes loving responsibility to the subordinates. These relationships are structured to generate optimal benefits for both parties, and the principles are laid to achieve a harmonious society (Fan, 2000). Among these five basic human relatio ns, three are family relations, which show strong family-orientation in the Chinese society. Such a characteristic when applied to organizational management, leads to the birth of a parternalistic management style in Chinese society (Hsiao, et al., 1990). As China is a high context culture (Hall, 1976) and places much emphasis on Confucianism, relationships within the Chinese society have been explained in terms of harmony, hierarchy, and development of morality and kinship (Shenkar and Ronen, 1987). Defining Guanxi Under the impact of Confucianism, China is a nation whose social relationships are neither individual-based nor society-based, but typically a relationship-based society (Liang, 1974), in which almost everyone tries to maintain Guanxi. Guanxi, which literally means social relationship or social connection, is a prevalent cultural phenomenon that has strong implications for interpersonal and interorganisational dynamics in Chinese society. The concept of Guanxi is enormou sly rich, complex and dynamic (Yang, 2001). In English as well as Chinese, it can be defined at various levels and from different perspectives. Chen and Chen (2004) argue that rather than social networks or interpersonal relationships found in the Western literature, Guanxi should be viewed as an indigenous Chinese construct and should be defined as an informal, particularistic personal connection between two individuals who are bounded by an implicit psychological contract to follow the social norms as maintaining a long-term relationship, mutual commitment, loyalty, and obligation.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Safety Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Safety - Essay Example For example, although a person is in a secure place such as a well-founded and guarded building if the person is haunted by psychological harm, that individual cannot be said to be safe. Safety should include not only one aspect of life but the total conditions of an individual. Hence, when there is nothing that puts someone at risk of anything in whichever of the aforementioned aspects, the circumstance is considered safe. My personal definition of safety is supported by Webster in his definition of the word as the â€Å"state or condition of freedom from danger, risk or injury†. Furthermore, Merriam-Webster dictionary defines safety as â€Å"the condition of being safe from undergoing or causing hurt, injury or loss†. Although the aforementioned definitions do not specify the boundaries of the descriptions, I have taken the liberty of doing so in my personal definition of the word. I believe that my understanding and definition of safety is quite similar to its general definition. Based from the references mentioned above, it could be comprehended that the word means the absence or state of freedom from whatever brings harm, danger, hurt or injury whether it is physical, mental or