Monday, November 11, 2019
Background American Express is very large, world-wide company, which originally started as freight forwarding and delivery services. Now with the main focus being on financial services they want to train their employees with the knowledge to be efficient, knowledgeable, with good listening and speaking skills. Jeanette Harrison, a vice president at American Express, feels that compliance and control should be very important for customer care. Today American Express is the largest card issuer by purchase volume. Issued AddressedAmerican Express developed American Express Learning Network (AELN), whose main purpose is to address the performance capabilities of their employees. With a mission statement of Ã¢â¬Å"ready all those who serveÃ¢â¬ the company AmExÃ¢â¬â¢s main goal is to teach with their employees effective jobs skills with the best possible learning method. There were three learning techniques the company tried. The first being a completely online based, the second being classroom, & the third a Ã¢â¬Å"blendedÃ¢â¬ technique which was a combination of the first two.JanetteÃ¢â¬â¢s personal learning theory and goal-setting theory is Ã¢â¬Å"learning literally changes livesÃ¢â¬ . She feels that education is the key to success and that if would help not only in work place but at home and in the community. Analysis of Issues Everyone has there on learning styles. So, it is no surprise that technique number three, Ã¢â¬Å"blendedÃ¢â¬ learning, worked the best overall. It gave the most diverse style of learning. There was not one main style. The classroom style was incorporated with the encouragement of question asking and brainstorming and also online tools were also used to help teach as well.With all the different types of learning utilized the employees will get to see the information in many different ways and would most likely have a higher attention rate. The three styles were evaluated at six different levels to see which was most effective . The first level testing reaction from the learner, the second was the retention of the knowledge, the third was the behavior towards improved learning skills, the fourth was how it impacted the company, the fifth was the cost effectiveness of the learning style, and the sixth the application of the information into the actual job.Conclusions The Ã¢â¬Å"blended learningÃ¢â¬ I feel is the best method. And it holds strong to Jeanettes learning and goal-setting theories. When the results came in on the three techniques the third scored or rated the best hands down. The company feels it has the upper hand in the leadership development program. The blue box values set by the company are a true testament to what the company wanted to achieve with the AELN program: customer commitment, quality, integrity, teamwork, respect for people, good citizenship, a will to win, and personal accountability.The three operating principals also hold strong to the values Jeanette believes in and wante d to achieve with the American Express Learning Network program. One the principals being to offer superior propositions to all of their customers, another being to operate with best in class economics, and last to be support American Express brand. References http://about. americanexpress. com/oc/whoweare/
Saturday, November 9, 2019
It was mid-August on a hot summer day hurricane Katrina damaged a city, New Orleans, possibly for a lifetime. The novel: City of Refuge by Tom Piazza gives readers an omniscient point of view of two families lives during this tragic event. The Williams family from the Lower 9th Ward and the Donaldsons originally from the upper Midwest who had made their way to New Orleans share the same traumatic experience; in different ways of the levees breaking from hurricane Katrina changed both of their lives forever. On Friday morning Craig Donaldson saw on the news that Hurricane Katrina had moved into the Gulf, heading in their direction. Craig and Alice, his wife contemplated leaving the following day or the day after for Oxford, Mississippi. Saturday morning started out rocky. Malcolm, their son, woke up with a burning fever. With all of this going on Craig prepared for their evacuation by getting the house in order before Katrina hit on Sunday. Around mid-day they decided to get on the road; unfortunately, the highway was backed up. Craig then decided to take a different route on a two-lane highway; traffic flowed at first but that too got backed up. Due to the extensive amount of traffic and the effects of the storm, they stopped at a hotel. They had wanted to stay with AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s parents but there were too many complications of not having enough room space, so her mom says. They waited at the hotel until the weather was clear enough for them to continue driving. AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s mother insisted she call her Aunt Jean and Uncle Gus who lived in Chicago. After Alice made the phone call, they decided to make their journey back to the Midwest. When they arrived in Chicago her family presented them with great hospitality and said they could stay as long as they needed. Alice decided to enroll Annie their daughter into school. During this time Alice was still taking care of Malcolm and helping her aunt and uncle around the house. The hurricane took a toll on Craig. One particular day while at his favorite cafe shop called Blue Horizon he noticed everyone appeared to be in a Ã¢â¬Å"happy-go-lucky-mood,Ã¢â¬ and this began to irritate him. He became upset because everyone took their lives for granted; no one was experiencing what he was going through. Craig became depressed and easily irritated. There would be times where he would take a deep breath and tears would run down his face and he would not know why. He recognized these symptoms and labeled himself as having Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. He started to accept that his home in New Orleans would never be the same. Alice comforted him during this time, even though she was going through the same experience. After time went on, things started turning from bad to good. Craig received a phone call from his old college friend, Peter. Peter suggested that Craig write a column for the Ã¢â¬Å"CHI EYEÃ¢â¬ . They felt this would be a good way for Craig to vent and write about his evacuation experience as well as his experiences in Chicago. Peter told Craig he would receive $1000 a week for 1500 words. When Craig received his first check, he took Alice out on a romantic date. As weeks went by Alice settled in Chicago; she secretly started searching for apartments and houses. She looked at Chicago as the place where her growing family lived before they went to New Orleans. Alice enjoyed living back in the Midwest; she did not feel that the damaged city of New Orleans was a good place for her kids, and she did not want to live like an Ã¢â¬Å"urban pioneerÃ¢â¬ for the rest of her life. She was ready to settle down and New Orleans was not the place for her at the time. Alice brought to CraigÃ¢â¬â¢s attention that they could not live in her aunt and uncles attic any longer. She told Craig she was looking into their future by house hunting. Craig took the new information as a stab in the back. He felt hurt and betrayed by his wife because she did not want to move back to New Orleans. Craig felt that their family might not be able to make it during this rough time. He contemplated on whether he should leave and return back to what he called home (New Orleans) and break up the family or stay for the kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ sake and feel like a disintegrate parent. Craig and Alice sat together and started expressing their feelings about how they felt on their current living situation. The heart to heart conversation made him realize he was making the wrong decision for his family. He was caught between starting a new life and returning to their old one. They both experienced self-knowledge during this time and achieved a new basis for themselves. They both realized that they were experiencing the same struggle, stress, and both wanted to be a happy. Although Alice had her opinion of New Orleans, she did miss the town but deep down Craig also wanted to start a new life. Craig has come to accept the idea of walking away from New Orleans; he saw how his friend, Bobby, experienced difficulty letting New Orleans go. Bobby and Jen, friends of the Donaldsons, became defensive when they heard Craig did not want to return to New Orleans because of Alice and their kids and also AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns for the overall city. Craig tried to explain from AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view why they should not return so that Bobby and Jen would understand. Craig and Bobby had different perspectives on the situation and completely different life styles. Bobby and Jen needed to realize that this was not a safe environment for Craig and AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s kids. They remained friends even with their new life differences. Craig returned to New Orleans acknowledging a new perspective; the importance of why he loved the city remained during Mardi Gras.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Memory for Designs Test Introduction The examination of the functioning of the memory of an individual cannot be limited to only one memory test, and as a result, there are a variety of assessments that target the various features of the memory. Memory test procedures take into consideration various attributes including features of the test instrument such as legitimacy and consistency of results.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Memory for Designs Test specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tests should ideally sample a variety of non-related features of the memory to make sure that particular inadequacies in the memory can be identified. In addition to this, aspects of recall and recognition should be tested, as a way to monitor memory processes in relation to memory indicators (Dustman Beck, 1980). It has been observed that most of the memory encounters are incidental as opposed to premeditated. In view of this, one of the tests admin istered should be unexpected, to prevent rehearsal. Some tests are administered through visual aspects, ignoring auditory-verbal presentation modes as well as motor-retrieval response modes. To make certain that the results obtained are well- founded, the person administering the tests should sample an appropriately broad range of test behaviors. Computerized testing has a number of drawbacks including time consuming and high cost of setting up the system (Dustman Beck, 1980). Memory for designs test The Memory for designs test was designed by Graham and Kendall, in 1946. The test examines visual recall of an individual based on brain damage versus functional disorder versus normality. It is a popular test for the examination of brain damage in children and adults. The scoring system allows the accumulation of normative data (Graham Kendall, 1947). Administration of the test The test is administered by presenting a series of fifteen geometric designs of increasing difficulty on in dividual cards. The cards are nine by twelve inch pieces of paper, with all designs drawn on the same piece of paper. Each design is presented to the individual alone, in a prearranged sequence. The subject is supposed to view the design for five seconds before it is removed from his view. The tests duration is about five to ten minutes (Erickson Scott, 1977). Development of the test The memory test was intended to draw the line and distinguish between individuals who are organically impaired and those who are functionally impaired. The inability to reproduce geometric designs from immediate memory is related to organic impairment.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the test was introduced, forty designs were set and administered to a few individuals who had brain damage. The final set of tests included those designs that were found to be easiest to score as we ll as discriminate best between groups. The test has since been used with all age groups for both clinical and research purposes (Erickson Scott, 1977). Sample According to Graham and Kendell (1960), there were a variety of samples such as the original validation group and a cross-validation group. In the original group, there were 70 brain-disorder patients with mixed diagnoses and 70 controls. They were all matched for age, education and occupational status. The original group included an equal number of males and females, as well as African Americans. The age bracket of the subjects was 9 to 69 years, with an average age of 42 years. The average educational level was eighth grade. The latter group comprised 33 brain-disordered patients and 168 control patients. There were three times as many men as women, with an average age of 28 years for the controls and 37 years for the brain-disordered subjects. Both groups had an average education of ninth grade (Peterson Mangen, 1981). S coring, scale norms and distribution According to the criteria provided by Graham and Kendall (1960), each reproduction has a score of 0-3, whereby the highest score signifies the worst performance. There was no penalty due to incomplete or forgotten designs. This is because the variables did not distinguish brain damaged subjects from control subjects. Reliability tests According to Graham and Kendell (1960), the split half reliability was .92 for 140 brain-damaged patients. Test-retest correlations conducted in the same session or within a 24 hour period for other groups ranged between .81 and .90. The clinical usefulness of the test is based on the adequacy of its standardization for various age groups as well as a variety of non-brained-damaged, psychiatric individuals. The reliability of the scoring is suitable based on data provided in the test manual. In addition to this, new studies on the reliability have found it satisfactory. Qualitative scores are possible based on a mea sure of the tendency to rotate the designs, whereby the error can be reliably calculated (Graham Kendall, 1947). The age standardization for normal adults is adequate though the normative data that is available for different functional psychiatric groups is not. It has been observed that some functional psychiatric disorders produce lower scores on the MFD test, though there are no age norms for representative populations of functional psychiatric disorders.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Memory for Designs Test specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This poses a challenge in the omission of the presence of a specific functional psychiatric disorder as a substitute explanation of a poor score based on the presently available norms, unless the alternative was eliminated on a different basis (Peterson Mangen, 1981). Validity tests An analysis of a large number of tests conducted on a sample of a hundred people t o diagnose brain damage showed a +.597 for the memory for designs test on the first factor. This was interpreted as perceptual organization or the ability to integrate the relevant aspects of the perceptual field. Based on the perceptual organization factor, a memory aspect was observed from the tests, proving that perceptual organization was able to facilitate performance when memory was involved (Peterson Mangen, 1981). The MFD test has been proven to always differentiate between groups of patients known without any doubt to have brain damage, as well as to match groups of normal people and psychiatric patients thought not to be brain damaged. According to the definition of brain damage, that it is any amount of cell death in the cerebral cortex irrespective of the cause, every person aged above 30 years would be brain damaged. Some forms of birth trauma, childhood injuries and anoxia cause cell death in many normal children, though the damage is insignificant since it does not r esult in impairment (Richie Butler, 1964). Predictive validity According to data presented in the Graham and Kendall ( 1960) test manual, a significant mean score difference between a group of brain-damaged and normal individuals, at the 0.01 level. This indicated an overlap in the scores of the non-brain-damaged and brain damaged groups that caused difficulties in coming up with a decision on the performance of borderline people. An example was the cut-off point whereby 4% of the controls were diagnosed as having brain damage. Out of these, half of the brain-damaged subjects in one group and 48% in another group were designated with brain damage. The other cut-off point made for varied combinations of correct identifications, errors and false positives (Richie Butler, 1964). Convergent validity According to Warren and Mangen, the memory for designs test correlated .85 and .81 with scores on the Bender Gestalt test.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Usability on older populations The test is timed. In addition to this, manual coordination is required. The involvement of these factors implies that the aged may be handicapped. Sensitivity to age difference According to Peterson and Mangen, there was a significant correlation between performance and age, of 0.27. This implied that an increase in age of the subject corresponded to poorer performance of the subject. There was also a correlation of -.31 of the MFD test scores with intelligence. Assessment by the vocabulary score on the Wechsler-Bellevue showed a significant multiple correlation of .44 with age and intelligence (Peterson Mangen, 1981). According to a study conducted on psychiatric patients aged above 60 years, 36 brain damaged and 36 controls, there was a considerable difference in the mean scores, which was not as high as that between, brain-damaged and standardization groups of younger ages. The mean scores were 8.44 and 13.89, while the SD was 6.33 and 5.81 for th e controls and brain-damaged group respectively. There was a big difference between this age group and all younger control groups, though the difference with the scores of adults between the ages of 20 and 60 did not vary much. The confounding factor was that the controls over 60 years had a decline in vocabulary scores that was the same as that of the brain-damaged groups, which yielded negative results for the younger ages. This signified that the use of psychiatric controls for the older age-group would be unsuitable (Dustman Beck, 1980). According to another study conducted for subjects between the age of 20 and 80, with 50 men and 40 men in each constituent decade, the performance of older age groups on the MFD was observed to be stable until the age of fifty, after which there was a fast decline and increased variability in subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ performances (Peterson Mangen, 1981). Conclusion The testÃ¢â¬â¢s reliability and validity are good, since it discriminates in a ration al manner between groups with brain damage and normal groups. The test has limitations when conducted on aged subjects since it requires manual coordination. In addition to this, it is timed and the performance correlates with age and intelligence. Unusual scores signify damage in a specific cortical area, which in turn signifies a formerly particular dysfunction. It could be translated to mean a shortened life expectancy, though the MFD is hardly translated to imply such occurrences. Studies have shown an insignificant correlation between MFD score and a rating of severity of brain damage according to certain assessment criteria such as EFG (Peterson Mangen, 1981). Other studies have also shown a wide range of MFD scores when the test is administered to a psychiatric group whose brain damage status is uncertain, resulting in no conclusions from the features shown by the group. One practical consequence of an abnormal MFD score which has been demonstrated is that the patient is lik ely also to have abnormal scores on several other tests of brain damage such as the Bender Gestalt Test, and the Benton Visual Retention Test. An abnormal MFD score might enable the clinical psychologist to identify a previously unknown pattern of associated psychological abnormalities which might have implications for the adjustment of the patient. Another useful implication of an abnormal MFD score among children is that one might anticipate difficulties in learning to read, as suggested by several studies (Erickson Scott, 1977). References Dustman, R. E., Beck, E. C. (1980). Memory-For-Designs Test: comparison of performance of young and old adults. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 36(3), 770-774. Erickson, R. C., Scott, M. L. (1977). Clinical Memory Testing. Psychological Bulletin , 1130-1149. Graham, F., Kendall, B. (1947). Memory-For-Designs Test. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 11(6). Peterson, W. A., Mangen, D. J. (1981). Research Instruments in Social Gerontology: C linical and Social Psychology (Clinical Social Psychology). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Richie, J., Butler, A. (1964). Performance of retardates on the memory-for-designs test. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 20(1), 108-110.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
The Russians Renamed St. Petersburg Three Times in a Century St. Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, and throughout history, it has been known by a few different names. In the more than 300 years since it was established, St. Petersburg has also been known as Petrograd and Leningrad, though its also known as Sankt-Peterburg (in Russian), Petersburg, and just plain Peter. The city has a population of about 5 million people. Visitors there take in the architecture, especially historic buildings along the Neva River and its canals and tributaries flowing in the city that connect Lake Ladoga to the Gulf of Finland. Being so far north, in the middle of summer, the citys daylight extends nearly 19 hours. Terrain includes coniferous forests, sand dunes, and beaches. Why all of the names for a single city? To understand the many aliases of St. Petersburg, look no further than the citys long, tumultuous history.Ã 1703: St. Petersburg Peter the Great founded the port city of St. Petersburg on the very western edge of Russia in 1703 in a marshy floodplain. Located on the Baltic Sea, he desired to have the new city mirror the great Western cities of Europe, where he had traveled while studying in his youth. Amsterdam was one of the primary influences on the czar, and the name St. Petersburg has a distinctlyÃ Dutch-German influence. 1914: Petrograd St. Petersburg saw its first name change in 1914 when World War I broke out. The Russians thought that the name sounded too German, and it was given a more Russian-sounding name. The Petro start of the name retains the history of honoring Peter the Great.The -gradÃ portion is a common suffix used in a number of Russian cities and localities. 1924: Leningrad It was only 10 years that St. Petersburg was known as Petrograd because in 1917 the Russian Revolution 503 changed everything for the country, including the citys name. At the beginning of the year, the Russian monarchy was overthrown, and by years end, the Bolsheviks had taken control. This led to the worlds first communist government. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin led the Bolsheviks, and in 1922 the Soviet Union was created. After Lenins death in 1924, Petrograd became known as Leningrad to honor the former leader. 1991: St. Petersburg Fast-forward through almost 70 years of the communist government to the fall of the USSR. In the years that followed, many places in the country were renamed, and Leningrad became St. Petersburg once again. Historical buildings saw renovation and rejuvenation. Changing the city name back to its original name did not come without controversy. In 1991, the citizens of Leningrad were given the opportunity to vote on the name change. As reported in the New York Times at the time, some people saw restoring the citys name to St. Petersburg as a way to forget the decades of turmoil during communist rule and an opportunity to reclaim its original Russian heritage. The Bolsheviks, on the other hand, saw the change as an insult to Lenin. In the end, St. Petersburg was returned to its original name, but you will still find some people who refer to the city as Leningrad.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Community development - Research Paper Example Data collection methods will include questionnaires and interviews. It is hypothesized that there are visible community development projects in Bangladesh that can be credited to the efforts of Grameen Bank. Additionally, it is hypothesized that there are women who have improved their lives due to empowerment by Grameen Bank. The outcome of this study will have implications on community development workers and agencies (Osmani 695). Since its inception in 1983, Grameen Bank has used an unconventional mode of lending different from other banks by eliminating the need for collateral. The bank has replaced the need for collateral with accountability, mutual trust, supervision, creativity, and participation. The emphasis of the bank is on education and economic empowerment of the poor people who live in the rural areas of Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to document the experience of Grameen Bank in community development and women empowerment in Bangladesh (Mahmud 49). The problems of poverty and women oppression are concerns shared worldwide and different groups and institutions address them in unique ways. Grameen Bank approaches community development and women empowerment from the rural parts of Bangladesh using collateral-free lending. Studies have expressed their admiration for Grameen BankÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to these two concerns. However, prior studies do not provide alternatives to how the bank can ensure that all women remain empowered and that they are not overshadowed by patriarchy and male domination and this is a gap that this study will seek to fill (Mahmud 48). Grammeen Bank started in 1983 from Professor Muhammad YunusÃ¢â¬â¢ idea of providing capital to the poor in Jobra village in Bangladesh. The sight of the poor population of Bangladesh suffering triggered the idea especially in the incidence of the adverse weather conditions of the country (Osmani 696). Famine and poor housing were some
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Post-operative pain management - Essay Example This paper wills address the post operative management of pain for people who have undergone total knee replacement Surgery. The resultant physiotherapy and required exercises can result in patients experiencing substantial amounts of pain. Pain signifies trauma to the body and may be as result of tissue damage from injury, surgery, and diseases. Pain causes discomfort, immobility, and various biological responses that inhibit normal functioning of the body and its management becomes a necessary tool in nursing (Alfred, 2007). After total knee cap replacement surgery, effective pain relief measures are necessary for humane reasons and to facilitate an effective postoperative recovery, which necessitates intensive physiotherapy to reduce recovery time and facilitate mobility in most patients. Different people have different tolerances for pain and it is necessary to consider the individual patients before commencing on a post operation pain relief plan. Other important considerations that must be considered include clinical factors, patient related factors, and local factors. Post operative nursing care for patients who have undergone total knee replacement may include a combination of various procedures including education, assessment of pain, pharmacological, and non-pharmacological interventions.Ã Pain management is deeply integrated and ingrained in medicine and is especially invaluable in patients who have undergone major and minor surgeries. Total knee replacement surgery is done to alleviate pain in the knees and is highly successful in restoring mobility. Though expensive, it is economically justifiable due to increased mobility that reduces reliance on other members of the society. The procedure results in post operative pain, which if not well managed can lead to chronic pains and disability (Eccleston, 2011). Post operative pain management practices are often hindered by costs,
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Geothermal Energy in Iceland - Coursework Example The researcher states that despite the slow pace at which the researches are being conducted, mainstream awareness, as well as government pressures, are on the rise. Various energy technologies have been proposed as appropriate for generating both electricity and heat to address the growing energy demand. A good example of a country involved in harnessing and utilizing renewable energy sources by use of various technological developments in Iceland. Various research findings have outlined different sources of alternative energy. The sources include solar energy, which can be converted either for heating purposes or by use of complex conversion into electricity. Next is wind power that can be used either for generation of electricity or for pumping water. We also have biomass that is used for various purposes including production of heat for warmth and cooking and production of methane gas used in alcohol production for powering electric power plants and fueling automobile. The other source of renewable energy is geothermal power. It is a reservoir of hot water and steam beneath the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface and can be used for heating as well as the generation of electricity. In addition, we have tidal and wave energy is used for heating and generation of electricity. Of all the stated alternative sources of energy, geothermal energy is one of the energy sources that have gained relevance as green energy leading to its widespread exploitation. The main purpose of this report will be to demonstrate an understanding and ability to assess, generation and the use of, geothermal energy in Iceland with different forms of alternative technologies. As a result, the research process will involve Identification of the primary ways in which energy is being generated from an alternative source (geothermal) in Iceland for the generation of electricity, heat, and transport.